Good question this time.

Here the first assumption that you should make is “counters are asynchronous”. In synchronous counters all the flipflops are applied with same clock pulse, so the output signal constantly varies with input signal.

Just as a general formula, you can remember it as

Fout = Fin / ( Total No of States ) ----> { For a single counter }

```
Now in 1st question there are 2 counter (say counter1 & counter2)
counter1 has n flipflops. Number of states = 2^n
counter2 has m flipflops. Number of states = 2^m
After passing through counter1,
fout1 = fin/2^n = 30MHz/2^6
Now fout1 will be the input frequency for counter2.
fout2 = fout1/2^m = (30MHz/2^6)/2^4 = 29.29KHz
```

**Coming to 2nd question,**

```
In 2nd question,
there are 2 counters( say counter1 and counter2)
counter1 is modulus-2 counter. so no of states = 2
counter1 is modulus-3 counter. so no of states = 3
apply same formula,
fout1 = fin/2 = 6MHz/2 = 3MHz
fout2 = fout1/3 = 3MHz/3 = 1MHz
```